Ammonium chloride Basic information
Issuing time:2018-06-05 11:02
|Ammonium chloride Chemical Properties|
|RIDADR||UN 3077 9 / PGIII|
|Autoignition Temperature||>400 °C|
|Hazardous Substances Data||12125-02-9(Hazardous Substances Data)|
|Toxicity||LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)|
|Ammonium chloride Usage And Synthesis|
|Uses||Manufacture of dry cell batteries; component of fluxes in zinc and tin plating; fume is evolved in galvanizing operations; mordant in dyeing and printing; fertilizer; hardener for formaldehyde-based adhesives|
|description||Ammonium chloride (referred to as "chloramine", also known as halogen sand, chemical formula: NH4Cl) is colorless cubic crystal or white crystalline powder. It tastes salty and slightly bitter and belongs to acid salt. Its relative density is 1.527. It is soluble in water, ethanol and liquid ammonia but insoluble in acetone and ether. The aqueous solution is weakly acidic, and its acidity is enhanced while heating. When heated to 100 ° C, it begins to significantly volatilize, and when heated to 337.8 ° C, it will dissociate into ammonia and hydrogen chloride, which, on cold exposure, will re-combine to produce small particles of ammonium chloride and white smoke that is not easy to sink and very difficult to be dissolved in water. When heated to 350 ° C ,it will sublimate and when 520 ° C, it will boil. Its moisture absorption is small, and in the wet rainy weather can absorb moisture to cake. For the ferrous metals and other metals, it is corrosive, which, in particular, has greater corrosion of copper but no corrosion of pig iron. Ammonium chloride can be obtained from the neutralization reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride or ammonia and hydrochloric acid (reaction equation: NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl). When heated, it will decompose into hydrogen chloride and ammonia reaction (equation: NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl) and the reaction is only to the right if the container is open system.|
ammonium chloride powder
|Nitrogen Fertilizer||Ammonium chloride is a quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer made by the direct reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric acid, in which the nitrogen content is 24~25%. It can dissociate into chloride ions and ammonium ions in the soil, and the former can combine with the hydrogen ions in the soil to form hydrochloric acid and the later can be absorbed by crops. The long-term use of ammonium chloride should add lime to the soil.|
The application methods of ammonium chloride as basal and top dressing is basically the same with ammonium sulfate, while the application amount is generally less 1/5 than ammonium sulfate. However, ammonium chloride is generally not used for seed and seedling fertilizer, in particular, should not be used for seed dressing or other application methods which need directly contact with seed. We had better not use ammonium chloride as fertilizers for tobacco, potatoes, grapes, citrus, tea trees and other "avoid chlorine crops"; if not, we can limit its use only in the region which is rich in rain or convenient for irrigation and where soil moisture is suitable for crops during the growth period and chloride ions are easy to move and loss. In addition, we should also apply basal fertilizer early and control the application strictly. Similarly, it is generally not appropriate to use ammonium chloride in the dry land absent of irrigation conditions, saline and alkaline areas poor in drainage and arid areas lacking rain.
According to the studies of Japanese salt amine Association, the fertilizer efficiency of ammonium chloride is better than ammonium sulfate in paddy fields. The main reasons are:
1. the use of ammonium chloride will not poison seedlings like ammonium sulfate that will produce poisonous gas hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ;
2. the existence of Cl-can not only inhibit the nitrification of NH4+, but also stimulate the proliferation of algae in rice fields. Part of the NH4+ are absorbed by algae to temporarily transform into slow nitrogen, which will reduce the nitrogen loss and prolong the fertilizer efficiency of Ammonium chloride fertilizer;
3. chloride ions can promote photosynthesis and is conducive to forming fiber and increasing its toughness and tension. It can also control the concentration of soluble nitrogen compounds in rice plants and promote the formation of chlorogenic acid (C16H18O9) that is the “resistance substances” of rice blast, thereby reducing rice lodging and pest invasion. The use of ammonium chloride for cotton and other fiber crops have significant effects of increasing yield and fiber quality. The degree of acidification of ammonium chloride to soil is greater than that of ammonium sulfate. The reason is that ammonium chloride produce ammonium chloride after the selective absorption of NH4+ by crops while ammonium sulfate produce calcium sulfate. Because the solubility of the former is larger than the latter, so the calcium ion loss of the former is more than that of the latter, resulting that ammonium chloride is more easy for soil acidification and compaction. So the ammonium chloride for acid soil should be equipped with lime or other alkaline fertilizer, but should not be used for mixed application.
|Water Solubility||0°C:29.4g 10°C:33.3g 20°C:37.2g 30°C:41.4g 40°C:45.8g 50°C:50.4g 60°C:55.2g 70°C:60.2g 80°C:65.6g 90°C:71.3g 100°C:77.3g|
|Decomposition temperature||The Decomposition temperature of ammonium chloride is 337.8 °C. In this temperature, it dissociates into ammonia and hydrogen chloride and then , on cold exposure, re-synthesize small particles of ammonium chloride and white fog that is not easy to sink and very difficult to dissolve in water. The visible gas will change back to ammonium chloride.|
|Uses||Ammonium chloride is mainly used for dry batteries, storage batteries, ammonium salts, tanning, plating, medicine, photography, electrodes, adhesives, etc. Ammonium chloride is also an available nitrogen chemical fertilizer whose nitrogen content is 24% to 25%. It is a physiological acidic fertilizer and suitable for wheat, rice, corn, rapeseed and other crops. It have the effects of enhancing fiber toughness and tension and improving quality especially for cotton and linen crops. However, due to the nature of ammonium chloride, if the application is not right, it will bring some adverse effects to soil and crops.|
Technical conditions: the implementation of the People's Republic of China national standard GB-2946-82.
1. Appearance: white crystal
2. ammonium chloride content (dry basis) ≥ 99.3%
3. moisture content ≤1.0%
4. sodium chloride content (dry basis) ≤0.2%
5. iron content ≤0.001%
6. heavy metal content (in terms of Pb) ≤0.0005%
7. water insoluble content ≤0.02%
8. sulfate content (in terms of SO42-) ≤0.02%
9. pH: 4.2-5.8
|Drug instructions||Action category This product is a expectorant drug which belongs to non-prescription drug.|
1. when ammonium chloride comes into body, part of ammonium ions rapidly metabolize to form urea, which is excreted by the urine. Chlorine ions and hydrogen ions combine into hydrochloric acid, thereby correcting alkali poisoning.
2. ammonium chloride has a stimulating effect on the respiratory mucosa, and can reflexively increase the mucus secretion of respiratory tract to discharge sputum and clear the sticky sputum coating. After this product is absorbed, chloride ions come into the blood and extracellular fluid to acidify the urine.
1. severe metabolic alkalosis that can not be satisfactorily corrected after the application of adequate sodium chloride injection.
2. ammonium chloride loading test can measure the acidification function of renal tubular and be used for the differential diagnosis of renal tubular acidosis.
3. eliminating phlegm, suitable for dry cough and condition where sputum is not easy to cough and so on.
Usage and dosage
1. Common dose of adult (taking orally): expectorant, 0.3-0.6g each time, 3 times a day; diuretic, 0.6~2g each time, 3 times a day.
2. Common daily dose of children by weight: 40-60mg/kg or by body surface area:1.5g/m2, 4 times one day.
3. Severe metabolic alkalosis (taking orally): 1~2g each time, 3 times a day. If necessary, intravenous infusion of 2% ammonium chloride according to the weight of 1ml/kg is needed, which can reduce CO2CPO. The amount of ammonium chloride should be calculated by 45mmol/L and then be diluted to 0.9% (isotonic) concentration with 5% glucose injection that used for intravenous infusion for 2 to 3 times.
1. Disabled for ulcer disease and severe liver and kidney dysfunction.
2. Disabled for people allergy to this product.
3. Disabled when the drug traits change.
4. When taking excessive dose or having serious adverse reactions, should seek medical attention immediately.
5. Children must be supervised by adults while applying this medicine.
6. Keep this medicine out of the reach of children.
This medicine can cause nausea, stomach pain and other symptoms.
|Methods of production||The main method to produce ammonium chloride is combined-soda process, in which the main raw materials used are carbon, ammonia, water and salt. The production is divided into two processes.|
The first process is the production of soda ash:
The second process is the production of ammonium chloride:
This process is performed in two steps. First, the mother liquor are sent into the first cold-crystallizer for cold crystallization to precipitate part of ammonium chloride; Second, the process is salting-out crystallization. Namely, according to the characteristic that the solubility of ammonium chloride is higher than that of sodium chloride at normal temperature while lower at low temperature, salt powder is added into the salt-crystallizer to make the remaining ammonium chloride crystallize alone due to the same ion effect. Finally, the ammonium chloride acquired from the former two steps is merged, centrifuged and dried at 65~68 ° C to obtain ammonium chloride products.
|Mixture preparation||A mount of ammonium chloride is dissolved in 500ml of distilled water and then filtrated. The pH value of filtrate is adjust to 8~9 with dilute ammonia solution. Add glycerol and extractum glycyrrhizae liquidum to mix well, followed by adding antimony potassium tartrate aqueous solution ( adding potassium antimonate tartrate into 20ml distilled water and heated for dissolvant) and compound camphor tincture while stirring. Finally, add distilled water to mix to 1000ml and stir well. This product can be used for eliminating phlegm and relieving cough.|
|content analysis||Accurately weigh 200 mg sample pretreated by drying in a silica gel for 4 hours, and dissolve in 40 ml of water in a stoppered flask. While stirring, 3 ml of nitric acid, 5 ml of nitrobenzene and 50.0 ml of 0.1 mol/L silver nitrate are added, Shake, add 2ml of iron ammonium sulfate solution (TS-99) and then titrate excess silver nitrate with 0.1mol/L ammonium thiocyanate solution. Per ml of 0.1 mol/L silver nitrate solution is equivalent to 5.349mg of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).|
|Toxicity||ADI is not subject to restrictive regulations (FAO/WHO, 2001).|
GRAS (FDA, § 184.1138, 2000).
LD 501650 mg/kg (rat, oral).
ADI is not limited (FAO/WHO, 1979). It is generally recognized as safe (US Food and Drug Administration, 1985). Generally mixed with sodium bicarbonate to use and the amount is about 25% of sodium bicarbonate or 10~20 g/kg of wheat flour. It is mainly used for bread, biscuits and so on.
It has big corrosiveness and should be used carefully for not contacting with the skin. The permissible concentration of ammonium chloride fume in the air is 10mg/m3. Operators should wear overalls, masks, latex gloves and other labor insurance products. Production equipment should be closed and the workshop ventilation should be good.
|Chemical properties||Colorless cubic crystals or white crystals. Taste salty and slightly bitter. Soluble in water, liquid ammonia, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in acetone and ether.|
|Uses||(1) Mainly used in the manufacture of dry batteries and batteries, other ammonium salts, electroplating additives, metal welding flux, and also used in tanning, candles, adhesives, etc.|
(2) Used for medicine, dry batteries, fabric printing，dyeing, fertilizer, tanning, electroplating, detergent and so on.
(3) Mainly used in the manufacture of dry batteries and storage batteries. It is the raw materials for the manufacture of other ammonium salts. Used as a dyeing aid, plating bath additives and metal welding flux. Also used for tin and zinc plating, tanning, medicine, candles, adhesives, chromizing and precision casting.
(4) Used as fertilizer for crops and it is suitable for rice, wheat, cotton, hemp, vegetables and other crops.
(5) Used for the analysis of reagents and the test of synthetic fiber viscosity
(6) Used as yeast nutrients (mainly used for brewing beer) and dough conditioner. Generally mixed with sodium bicarbonate and the amount is about 25% of sodium bicarbonate or measured by 10~20g/kg wheat flour. Mainly used for bread, biscuits and so on. Processing aids (GB 2760-96).
(7) Use as yeast nutrients and dough conditioner in the food industry.
(8) Medicinal ammonium chloride is used for expectorants and diuretics.
Used as expectorants. Also used as adhesives, detergents, dyeing auxiliaries, and used in electroplating, welding, tanning, medicine, photography and other industries.
(9) Used for separation and precipitation of ions. Also used to prepare the buffer and determine uric acid. Also used as refrigerants and pharmaceuticals.
(10) Used for separation and precipitation of ions. Also used to prepare the buffer and determine uric acid. Also used as refrigerants and pharmaceuticals.
The product of pharmaceutical grade can be used for expectorants and auxiliary diuretics. Used for eliminating phlegm, diuresis, alkalosis and the acidification of urine. Used for the production of batteries and fluorescent powder.
|Production method||(1) Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the chemical ammonium chloride is finished.|
(2) Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystallization. The obtained mixture is then filtrated and separated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium. Add arsenic removal and heavy metal removal to the filtrate and filtrate to remove arsenic, heavy metals and other impurities. The filtrate is sent to a cooling crystallizer and is cooled to 32-35 ℃ to precipitate the crystals. The crystals are filtered and washed with ammonium chloride solution, and then are dehydrated by centrifugal separation and dried to obtain finished edible ammonium chloride. Reaction formula：
(NH4) 2SO4 + 2NaCl→2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
Recrystallization method: the industrial ammonium chloride is added into the dissolver which has been filled with distilled water, and dissolved by heating. The obtained solvents is purified by arsenic removal and heavy metal removal, and then filtered, cooled for crystallization, centrifuged and dried. Finally the edible ammonium chloride is finished.
(3) The mother liquor was filtrated by associated alkali method and cooled for crystallization, and then add salt powder to salt out the product.
It can also be obtained by derived replacement reaction of ammonium sulfate and calcium chloride in aqueous solution.
(4) Gas-liquid phase synthesis: hydrogen chloride gas is added from the bottom of the turbulence absorption tower and then contact with the circulating mother liquor flowing from overhead spray to generate chloride mother liquor containing saturated ammonium chloride. Chloride mother liquor then flows into the reactor and react with ammonia gas to form a saturated ammonium chloride solution. The obtained solvents are sent to the cooling crystallizer and cooled to 30~45 ° C to precipitate supersaturated ammonium chloride crystals. The ammonium chloride solution in the upper part of the crystallizer is sent to the air cooler for cooling and circulating to the crystallizer; the crystal slurry in the lower part of the crystallizer is thickened by thickening thickener and centrifuged for separation to obtain ammonium chloride. Reaction formula:
HCl + NH3 → NH4Cl
The mother liquor separated by centrifugation is sent to the turbulent absorption tower for recycling.
Metathesis method: the mother liquor of ammonium chloride is added to reactor and heated to 105 ° C. Add ammonium sulfate and salt under stirring and proceed metathesis reaction at 117 ° C, resulting in forming ammonium chloride solution and sodium sulfate crystals. The obtained mixture is then filtrated to remove sulfuric acid Sodium and the filtrate is sent to cooling crystallizer and cooled to 32 to 35 ℃ for crystallization. Then the crystals of ammonium chloride is obtained by filtration and respectively washed by 4 different concentrations (15～17°Bé，11～12°Bé，10°Bé，9.5～10°Bé) of ammonium chloride solution, controlling Fe < 0.008%, SO42-< 0.001%. After elution to qualified, use ammonium chloride solution to remake the crystals into slurry, put into the centrifuge for separation and dehydration. And then dry by hot air and obtain the industrial ammonium chloride products. Reaction formula:
2NaCl + (NH4) 2SO4 → 2NH4Cl + Na2SO4
The mother liquor is sent to the metathesis reactor for recycling. The separated sodium sulfate is filtered to produce sodium sulfate. The crude ammonium chloride is added into the dissolving device, dissolved in the steam and filtered. The filtrate is cooled for crystallization, centrifugalized and dried to obtain the finished products of industrial ammonium chloride. The mother liquor from the centrifugal separation is returned to the dissolver for use.
|Hazards & Safety Information||Category|
Oral-Rat LD50: 1650 mg/kg; Oral-mouse LD50: 1300 mg/kg
Eye-Rabbit 500 mg/24h Severe
Explosives hazardous characteristics
React with potassium chlorate or BRF3 to explore; react with hydrogen cyanide to explore
Flammability hazardous properties
The products are not flammable by themselves and produce toxic nitrogen oxides, chlorides and ammonia fumes at high temperatures
Storage and transportation characteristics
Ventilation, low temperature and dry
Fire extinguishing agent
dry powder, foam, sand, carbon dioxide, mist water
TWA 10mg/m3; STEL 20 mg/m3
|Chemical Properties||Ammonium chloride,Nl4CI, also known as ammoniae, salmiai,and ammonium nituriate,is a white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water, aqueous solutionsof ammonia, and is slightly soluble in methyl alcohol. Ammonium chloride is found in natureas a sublimation productof volcanic activity, or is produced by neutralizing HCI(either in liquid or gaseousphase) with NH3 gas or liquid NH40H then evaporating the excess H20. The salt decomposes at350°C and sublimes under controlled conditions at 520 °C. Ammoniumchlorideis used as an electrolyte in dry cell batteries,as a fluxfor soldering, tinningandgalvanizing, andas a processing ingredientin textile printing and hide tanning. Use as a source of nitrogen for fertilizersis limited because of the possible build up of damaging chloride residuals in the soil.|
|Chemical Properties||Ammonium chloride occurs as colorless, odorless crystals or crystal masses. It is a white, granular powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is hygroscopic and has a tendency to cake.|
|Physical properties||Colorless cubic crystals or white granular powder; saline taste; odorless; hygroscopic; does not melt but sublimes on heating at 340°C; vapor pressure 48.75 torr at 250°C and 251.2 torr at 300°C; density 1.5274 g/cm3at 25°C; refractive index 1.642; readily dissolves in water, solubility: 229 g and 271 g/L solution at O°C and 20°C, respectively; solubility lowered by alkali metal chlorides and HCl; dissolution lowers the temperature of the solution; sparingly soluble in alcohols (6 g/L at 19°C) and soluble in liquid NH3; insoluble in acetone and ether.|
|Occurrence||Ammonium chloride occurs in nature in crevices near volcanoes. Also, it is found in smoke when burning dry camel or donkey dung as fuel. Important applications of this compound include the manufacture of dry cells for batteries; as a metal cleaner in soldering; as a flux in tin coating and galvanizing; in fertilizers; in pharmaceutical applications as a diuretic, or diaphoretic expectorant; and as an analytical standard in ammonia analysis. Also, it is used in freezing mixtures; washing powders; lustering cotton; in safety explosives and in dyeing and tanning.|
|Uses||White crystals made by ammonia salts acting upon hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. Ammonium chloride is also known as sal ammoniac. Soluble in water and alcohol, ammonium chloride was used as a halide in many processes, including the salted paper, albumen paper, albumen opaltype, and gelatin emulsion processes.|
|Uses||ammonium chloride is used as a thickener and as an additive in non-alcoholic toners. According to cosmetic formulators, the ammonium component provides the tingling or stinging sensation that some people associate with toners or aftershaves, and which, in regular toners, is usually provided by the alcohol content. Ammonium chloride’s use is the result of preference in formulation feel.|
|Uses||Ammonium Chloride is a dough conditioner and yeast food that exists as colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. approximately 30–38 g dissolves in water at 25°c. the ph of a 1% solution at 25°c is 5.2. it is used as a dough strengthener and flavor enhancer in baked goods and as a nitrogen source for yeast fermentation. it is also used in condiments and relishes. another term for the salt is ammonium muriate.|
|Definition||ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion.|
|Production Methods||Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.|
|Definition||sal ammoniac: A white or colourless cubicsolid, NH4Cl; r.d. 1.53; sublimes at340°C. It is very soluble in water andslightly soluble in ethanol but insolublein ether. It may be prepared byfractional crystallization from a solutioncontaining ammonium sulphateand sodium chloride or ammoniumcarbonate and calcium chloride. Puresamples may be made directly by thegas-phase reaction of ammonia andhydrogen chloride. Because of itsease of preparation it can be manufacturedindustrially alongside anyplant that uses or produces ammonia.The compound is used in drycells, metal finishing, and in thepreparation of cotton for dyeing andprinting.|
|General Description||Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid. Ammonium chloride is soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Ammonium chloride is used to make other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses.|
|Air & Water Reactions||Soluble in water. Slowly releases hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].|
|Reactivity Profile||Acidic salts, such as Ammonium chloride , are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.|
|Hazard||Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.|
|Health Hazard||Inhalation of fumes irritates respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.|
|Pharmaceutical Applications||Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations. It is also used as a food additive and antiseptic agent.|
Ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis. It is also used as an expectorant in cough medicines.
|Agricultural Uses||Ammonium chloride, like all other ammonium salts, is used as a fertilizer. It contains 24 to 26% nitrogen and is available as white crystals or granules. A coarse form of this fertilizer is preferred to the powdered form for direct application. Its crystals are used in compound fertilizers.|
Ammonium chloride is a good source of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane and fiber crops. It is easy to handle. In some cases, however, the material tends to become lumpy and difficult to spread.
Ammonium chloride is used either directly for fertilization or in a variety of compound fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate chloride or ammonium potassium chloride or in combination with urea or ammonium sulphate.
As a fertilizer, ammonium chloride has an advantage in that it contains 26% nitrogen, which is higher than that found in ammonium sulphate (20.5%). In terms of per unit cost of nitrogen, ammonium chloride is relatively cheaper than ammonium sulphate and has some agronomic advantages for rice. Nitrification of ammonium chloride is less rapid than that of urea or ammonium sulphate. Therefore, nitrogen losses are lower and yields, higher.
However, ammonium chloride is a highly acid forming fertilizer and the amount of calcium carbonate required to neutralize the acidity is more than the fertilizer itself, Further, it has a lower nitrogen content and a higher chloride content compared to urea and ammonium nitrate, making it harmful to some plants.
Several methods are used to produce ammonium chloride. The most important is the dual-salt process (modified Solvay process) wherein ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate are produced simultaneously using common salt and anhydrous ammonia as the principal starting materials. When ammonium chloride is mixed with phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, a large amount of soil calcium is lost as its conversion into soluble calcium chloride causes it to leach out easily.
Like ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride can be applied to wet land crops. In terms of the agronomic suitability, it is generally rated as equal to other straight nitrogenous fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is, however, not ideal for grapes, chilies, potatoes and tobacco as the added chlorine affects the quality and storability of these crops.
Industrial uses of ammonium chloride are in dry-battery manufacture and as a flux for soldering and brazing.
|Safety||Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.|
LD50(mouse, IP): 1.44 g/kg
LD50(mouse, oral): 1.3 g/kg
LD50(rat, IM): 0.03 g/kg
LD50(rat, oral): 1.65 g/kg
|Potential Exposure||Ammonium chloride is used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug; to make dry batteries; in galvanizing; as a soldering flux.|
|Veterinary Drugs and Treatments||The veterinary indications for ammonium chloride are as a urinary acidifying agent to help prevent and dissolve certain types of uroliths (e.g., struvite), to enhance renal excretion of some types of toxins (e.g., strontium, strychnine) or drugs (e.g., quinidine), or to enhance the efficacy of certain antimicrobials (e.g., chlortetracycline, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G or tetracycline) when treating urinary tract infections. Ammonium chloride has also been used intravenously for the rapid correction of metabolic alkalosis.|
Because of changes in feline diets to restrict struvite and as struvite therapeutic diets (e.g., s/d) cause aciduria, ammonium chloride is not commonly recommended for struvite uroliths in cats.
|storage||Ammonium chloride is chemically stable. It decomposes completely at 3388℃ to form ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.|
|Shipping||UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.|
|Purification Methods||Crystallise it several times from conductivity water (1.5mL/g) between 90o and 0o. It sublimes. After one crystallisation, ACS grade has: metal(ppm) As (1.2), K (1), Sb (7.2), V (10.2). [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 812 1963.]|
|Incompatibilities||Ammonium chloride is incompatible with strong acids and strong bases. It reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate, causing fire and explosion hazards. It also attacks copper and its compounds.|
|Waste Disposal||Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.|
|Regulatory Status||GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral syrup, tablets). Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in medicines licensed in the UK (eye drops; oral syrup).|
|Ammonium chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials|
|Raw materials||Hydrochloric acid-->Sodium sulfate-->Sodium chloride-->Ammonia-->CARBON DIOXIDE-->Ammonium bicarbonate-->4-Chlorobenzaldehyde-->Hydroquinone-->Potassium chloride-->Ammonium sulfate-->Ammonium nitrate-->HEAVY CUT RESIDUE OIL-->Propylene carbonate|
|Preparation Products||Iridium-->Ethyl benzoylformate-->3-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDINE-->2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal-->Tricyclohexyl phosphine-->4-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDINE-->TRIHEXYLPHOSPHINE-->Ammonium dichromate-->CYCLOLEUCINOL-->Methyl 3-aminosulfonylthiophene-2-carboxylate-->1-Naphthyl isocyanate-->3-METHYLTHIOPHENE-2-CARBOXAMIDE-->Kanamycin sulfate-->Dye-fixing agent M-->4-AMIDINOPYRIDINIUM CHLORIDE-->2-NAPHTHYL ISOCYANATE-->2-Chloro-5-chloromethylthiophene-->2-Formylfuran-5-boronic acid-->4-NITROBENZAMIDINE, HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE-->2-AMINO-4,6-DIMETHYL-3-PYRIDINECARBOXAMIDE-->Pyridine-2-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->2,5-Dichlorothiophene-3-sulfonamide-->Praseodymium-Zircon Yellow-->Elastase-->interferon-gamma-1a-->5-(AMINOMETHYL)-5-METHYLPYRROLIDIN-2-ONE-->4-METHOXYBENZAMIDINE, HYDROCHLORIDE-->4-METHOXY-BENZAMIDINE-->4-Chlorobenzene-1-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->4-METHYL-BENZAMIDINE-->4-Methylbenzene-1-carboximidamide hydrochloride-->Amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid)-->THIOTHIAMINE-->color fixing agent Y-->1,3-DICHLORO-2-BUTENE-->1-PHENYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZIDE-->xylene isomerization catalysts-->new type low toxic urea-formalde-hyde adhesive A-01-B-->3,4-Dichloro-1,2,5-thiadiazole|